fib Commission 8 (COM8) aims to identify concrete-related durability issues, consider and review current information available on the topic, and provide guidance on materials and methods that will assist in optimal durability design of new structures and restoration design of existing structures.
Scope and objective of technical work
Service life design forms one part of this and COM8 will develop rational procedures to obtain an optimal technical-economic performance of concrete structures in service and to ensure that sustainability, whole-life cost and associated through-life perspectives are taken into account as part of the process by which experience gained from practice is fed back to the design, execution, maintenance and rehabilitation stages. COM8 work will address the structural service life aspects of structures with rational strategies, procedures and criteria for design, assessment, maintenance and remediation.
COM8 work also includes review of methods for the determination of inspection frequencies as well as methods based on sound engineering principles that will provide optimal information for the durability assessment of marine structures.
|First name||Last name||Country||Affiliation|
|Joost||Gulikers||Netherlands||Rijkswaterstaat Centre for Infrastructure|
|Anders Ole Stubbe||Solgaard||Denmark||Cowi A/S|
|Steinar||Helland||Norway||S Helland Konsult|
|Aad||Van Der Horst||Netherlands||BAM Infraconsult bv.|
|Carmen||Andrade||Spain||Centre Internacional de Mètodes Numèrics en l’Ènginyeria (CIMNE)|
|Carola K.||Edvardsen||Denmark||Cowi AS|
|Alberto||Meda||Italy||University of Rome “Tor Vergata”|
|Norbert||Randl||Austria||Carinthia Univ. of Applied Sciences|
|Zila||Rinaldi||Italy||University of Rome “Tor Vergata”|
|Alfred||Strauss||Austria||Univ. Bodenkultur Vienna|
|Amir||Rahimi||Germany||Bundesanstalt für Wasserbau|
|Roberto||Torrent||Switzerland||Quali- Ti-Mat Sagl|
|Ainars||Paeglitis||Latvia||Riga Technical University|
|Lionel||Linger||France||Vinci Construction Grand Projets|
|Rui Miguel||Ferreira||Finland||VTT Techn. Research Centre of Finland|
|Michael||Bartholomew||United States||CH2M HILL|
|José||Campos e Matos||Portugal||University of Minho|
|Harshavardhan||Subbarao||India||Construma Consultancy Pvt. Ltd.|
|Joan||Casas Rius||Spain||Tech. Univ. of Catalunya, UPC-BarcelonaTech|
|Frank||Dehn||Germany||KIT Karlsruher Institut für Technologie|
|Eduardo||Julio||Portugal||Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade de Lisboa|
|Agnieszka||Bigaj-van Vliet||Netherlands||TNO - Buildings, Infrastructures and Maritime|
|David||Gardiner||Australia||SMEC Australia Pty Ltd|
|Hans-Dieter||Beushausen||South Africa||University of Cape Town|
|Stuart||Curtis||Australia||RTR Bridge Construction Services|
|Guillermo||Di Pace||Argentina||Di Pace - Rhor Consulting|
|Qing-feng||Liu||China||Shanghai Jiao Tong University|
|Harald||Müller||Germany||SMP Ingenieure im Bauwesen GmbH|
|Brett||Pielstick||United States||Eisman & Russo|
|Muhammad Imran||Rafiq||United Kingdom||University of Brighton|
|Jean Michel||Torrenti||France||Univ Gustave Eiffel|
|François||Toutlemonde||France||Université Gustave Eiffel|
|Stefanie||Von Greve-Dierfeld||Switzerland||TFB Technology and Research for Concrete Structures|
|Joost||Walraven||Netherlands||Delft University of Technology|
- TG8.1 - Model technical specification for repairs and interventions
- TG8.4 - Life cycle cost (LCC) - Design life and/or replacement cycle
- TG8.5 - Durability of post-tensioning systems
- TG8.7 - Durability design of steel fibre reinforced concrete
- TG8.8 - Common approaches
- TG8.9 - Deterioration Mechanisms
- TG8.10 - Steel reinforcement
- TG8.11 - Testing of new concrete
TG8.1 - Model technical specification for repairs and interventions
Task Group 8.1 is preparing a technical report on the subject of the requirements for a model specification for repairs and interventions with the goal of achieving publication as an fib bulletin. Consideration will be given as to whether this work should later be taken forward as a future Guide to Good Practice.
A first draft report is under development. It has been decided to further develop the approach employed in a Norwegian document containing model technical specifications for a number of rehabilitation methods and align them to the Eurocode convention. In so doing it is envisaged that this report will deliver a model technical specification for a range of rehabilitation methods, each underpinned by their principles. Topics and techniques being considered for inclusion include: Concrete removal, concrete reinstatement, patch repair; surface treatments and coating; cathodic protection; chloride extraction; realkalisation; crack sealing; physical protection / barriers; cladding; inhibitors; electro–osmosis; sacrificial anode (in patch repair); strength; external reinforcement; jacketing; external pre-stressing and replacement and reconstruction of elements. These topics will be preceded by chapters covering the investigation of defective concrete from inspection and testing to monitoring.
First name Last name Country Affiliation Irina Stipanovic Oslakovic Netherlands University of Twente Anders Ole Stubbe Solgaard Denmark Cowi A/S Carola K. Edvardsen Denmark Cowi AS Júlio Appleton Portugal A2P Consult Toyoaki Miyagawa Japan Kyoto University Frank Papworth Australia BCRC John Cairns United Kingdom Heriot-Watt University David Fernández-Ordóñez Switzerland fib Shoji Ikeda Japan Hybrid Research Inst. Inc. Michael Bartholomew United States CH2M HILL Eduardo Cavaco Portugal Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa José Manuel de Sena Cruz Portugal University of Minho Koichi Kobayashi Japan Gifu University João Ramoacorreia Portugal Instituto Superior Técnico, University of Lisbon Constantinos Repapis Greece University of West Attica Meini Su United Kingdom University of Manchester Takashi Habuchi Japan Toa Corporation Mercedes Sánchez Moreno Spain Universidad de Córdoba André Monteiro Portugal National Laboratory for Civil Engineering Harshavardhan Subbarao India Construma Consultancy Pvt. Ltd. Lojze Bevc Slovenia ZAG Slovenije Christian Christodoulou United Kingdom AECOM Ltd Brett Pielstick United States Eisman & Russo Stephanos Dritsos Greece University of Patras Andreas Lampropoulos United Kingdom University of Brighton Ainars Paeglitis Latvia Riga Technical University Etsuji Kikuta Japan Civil Engineering Research Institute for Cold Region Luis Lima Argentina UNNOBA On Moseley Greece Private David Smith United Kingdom Atkins Takao Ueda Japan University of Tokushima Christos Giarlelis Greece Equidas Consulting Engineers Nicholas Kyriakides Cyprus Cyprus University of Technology Luís Correia Portugal University of Minho Voula (S.J.) Pantazopoulou Canada The Lassonde Faculty of Engineering, York University Sofia Ribeiro Portugal Laboratório Nacional de Engenharia Civil, LNEC Theodoros Rousakis Greece Democritus University of Thrace Norbert Randl Austria Carinthia Univ. of Applied Sciences Eduardo Julio Portugal Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade de Lisboa Christoph Czaderski-Forchmann Switzerland EMPA, Structural Engineering Mark Verbaten Netherlands ABT bv Jan Laco United Kingdom Atkins Thanasis Triantafillou Greece University of Patras Maurizio Guadagnini United Kingdom University of Sheffield Renata Kotynia Poland Lodz University of Technology Eva Oller Ibars Spain Technical University of Catalonia José Paul Costa Portugal STAP, SA Raquel Fernandes Paula Portugal STAP, S.A. António Costa Portugal Instituto Superior Técnico Emmanuel Ferrier France Université Lyon 1 Eftychia Apostolidi Austria University BOKU (University ofNatural Resources and Life Sciences) Xavier Hallopeau France Freyssinet International & Cie Jakob Kunz Liechtenstein Hilti AG Liberato Ferrara Italy Politecnico di Milano Francesco Bencardino Italy University of Calabria Véronique Bouteiller France IFSTTAR Alejandro Mateos Argentina National University of Northwest of Buenos Aires - UNNOBA
TG8.4 - Life cycle cost (LCC) - Design life and/or replacement cycle
The work of TG8.4 comprises the preparation of a state-of-the-art report on LCC including the following:
- A flow chart for life cycle cost analyses;
- Examples and/or case studies concerning life cycle cost evaluations of design strategies,including narratives and consequences of the favoured strategy;
- A risk analysis covering costs and benefits;
- Identification of hazard scenarios (weak points);
- Discussion on the value added by the LCC analyses including:
- Birth Certificate;
- Reference to relevant fib documents.
First name Last name Country Affiliation Irina Stipanovic Oslakovic Netherlands University of Twente Anders Ole Stubbe Solgaard Denmark Cowi A/S Zila Rinaldi Italy University of Rome “Tor Vergata” Alfred Strauss Austria Univ. Bodenkultur Vienna David Fernández-Ordóñez Switzerland fib Frank Papworth Australia BCRC José Campos e Matos Portugal University of Minho Joan Casas Rius Spain Tech. Univ. of Catalunya, UPC-BarcelonaTech Hiroshi Akiyama Japan Tokyo Soil Research CO., LTD Stefania Arangio Italy Sapienza University of Rome Colin Caprani Australia Monash University Amr El-Dieb United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates University Rui Miguel Ferreira Finland VTT Techn. Research Centre of Finland Dan Frangopol United States Lehigh University Joost Gulikers Netherlands Rijkswaterstaat Centre for Infrastructure Poul Linneberg Denmark COWI A/S Snezana Masovic Serbia University of Belgrade Drahomir Novak Czech Republic Technical University of Brno Nader M Okasha Saudi Arabia University of Hail, Hayil Xin Ruan China Tongji University Mohammed Safi Sweden Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) Mauricio Sanchez-Silva Colombia Universidad de Los Andes M. Semih Yücemen Turkey Middle East Technical University Ali Akbar Nezhad Australia UNSW Australia
TG8.5 - Durability of post-tensioning systems
Task Group 8.5 (TG8.5) will produce an update of Bulletin 33, “Durability of post-tensioning tendons” (Recommendation published in 2005). This update will include a title change to address the ever changing post-tensioning systems and the advancement of tendon protection systems to include prepackaged grouts and wax systems.
First name Last name Country Affiliation Mohammed Safi Sweden Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) Nuno Ferreira United Kingdom Arup Brett Pielstick United States Eisman & Russo David Fernández-Ordóñez Switzerland fib Michael Bartholomew United States CH2M HILL Gregory Hunsicker United States OnPoint Engineering and Technology LLC Luis Neves United Kingdom Nottingham University Larry Krauser United States General Technologies, Inc. Hans Rudolf Ganz Switzerland Ganz Consulting Jan Laco United Kingdom Atkins Teddy Theryo United States Florida Department of Transportation Natassia Brenkus United States The Ohio State University
TG8.7 - Durability design of steel fibre reinforced concrete
Steel fibres are supported in MC2010 but no limitation are placed on their use in regards durability. While it is recognised that Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete (SFRC) may be highly durable, steel fibres do corrode in some exposures and when corrosion occurs a very small loss of fibre thickness may lead to significant loss of concrete performance. Although structural guidance codes for SFRC exist today, and provide valuable design information and procedures, durable structures may not result in exposure classes XD2, XD2, XS3 and XD3 (DafStb Guideline on Steel fibre reinforced concrete) due to the lack of any durability guidance. At best current codes suggest the need for special provisions for exposure class 3 or higher (RILEM TC 162-TDF) without providing durability design methods.
A literature review of research and use of steel fibres in concrete in regards durability will be the main method of developing and understanding the performance of SFRC under several exposure environments. The group will consider the notion of critical chloride content distributions that support initiation of fibre corrosion, alkalinity reduction due to carbonation and the effect of cracking with regard to fibre corrosion. The aim is to define model equations that also consider reduction of mechanical capacity. This will include a review of loss of concrete performance vs corrosion of fibres considering fibre types, steel types and fibre surface effects due to the manufacturing and installation processess. Also to be reviewed is the effects of mix designs and quality control on corrosion resistance.
First name Last name Country Affiliation David Fernández-Ordóñez Switzerland fib Frank Papworth Australia BCRC Anders Ole Stubbe Solgaard Denmark Cowi A/S Alberto Meda Italy University of Rome “Tor Vergata” Gerhard Vitt Germany Bekaert GmbH Nuno Ferreira United Kingdom Arup Carola K. Edvardsen Denmark Cowi AS Joost Gulikers Netherlands Rijkswaterstaat Centre for Infrastructure Carlos Gil Berrocal Sweden Chalmers University of Technology Véronique Bouteiller France IFSTTAR Federica Lollini Italy Politecnico di Milano Lionel Linger France Vinci Construction Grand Projets Alexander Michel Denmark DTU Sotiris Psomas United Kingdom Morgan Sindall Lucie Vandewalle Belgium KULeuven Marco di Prisco Italy Politecnico di Milano David Gardiner Australia SMEC Australia Pty Ltd Elena Vidal Sarmiento Spain Bekaert
TG8.8 - Common approaches
Throughout durability design there are a number of common inputs that should be handled in a consistent approach, e.g. reliability, cracking, exposure risk assessment, verification approaches.
This Task Group will maintain approaches that are consistent across different materials and durability design approaches consistency and provide liaison with other Commissions to ensure consistency across all aspects of Model Code.
- This Task Group shall investigate various aspects that have a common impact on modelling of deterioration mechanisms but the TG is not directly involved in the mechanisms or materials.
- Many of these items are fundamental to all aspects of structural design and cannot be
- considered durability issues alone. However, the issues are key to durability design.
Consider “Levels of Approximation” approach in durability design and set out how it is to be incorporated in durability design using the four durability verification approaches, inspection and testing and materials evaluation.
First name Last name Country Affiliation Philipp Bamforth United Kingdom Construction Consultancy Jonathan Mai-Nhu France CERIB Raymond Ian Gilbert Australia School of Civil and Environmental Engineering Konstantin Kovler Israel Technion - Israel Institute of Technology Stefanie Von Greve-Dierfeld Switzerland TFB Technology and Research for Concrete Structures Steinar Helland Norway S Helland Konsult François Toutlemonde France Université Gustave Eiffel David Fernández-Ordóñez Switzerland fib Lionel Linger France Vinci Construction Grand Projets Frank Papworth Australia BCRC Michael Bartholomew United States CH2M HILL Hans-Dieter Beushausen South Africa University of Cape Town Stuart Curtis Australia RTR Bridge Construction Services Jean Michel Torrenti France Univ Gustave Eiffel Agnieszka Bigaj-van Vliet Netherlands TNO - Buildings, Infrastructures and Maritime Claus Nielsen Denmark DTI - Danish Technological Institute
TG8.9 - Deterioration Mechanisms
TG8.9 will investigate models for the following deterioration processes: Rebar Corrosion Initiation; Rebar Corrosion Propagation; Abrasion, Erosion and Cavitation; Freeze Thaw Attack; Leaching; Water and Water Vapour Migration and Chemical Attack.
In MC2010 and Bulletin 34, some of these mechanisms have only loosely defined models and some have no models. MC2010 also has limited advice for exposure classes, performance tests, deemed to satisfy requirements and avoidance approaches.
None of the deterioration processes have been developed in the fib documents for assessment of existing structures residual life. Design guidance for this phase is a primary objective for TG8.9.
Model Code 2010 notes that a structures robustness (AG10) could be compromised by deterioration but it provides no details of what these failures might be or measures to be taken to avoid them.
First name Last name Country Affiliation Carmen Andrade Spain Centre Internacional de Mètodes Numèrics en l’Ènginyeria (CIMNE) David Fernández-Ordóñez Switzerland fib Carola K. Edvardsen Denmark Cowi AS Christoph Gehlen Germany CBM Steinar Helland Norway S Helland Konsult Stefanie Von Greve-Dierfeld Switzerland TFB Technology and Research for Concrete Structures Manu Santhanam India IIT Madras Amir Rahimi Germany Bundesanstalt für Wasserbau Philipp Bamforth United Kingdom Construction Consultancy Michael Bartholomew United States CH2M HILL Edgar Bohner Finland - Véronique Bouteiller France IFSTTAR Guillermo Di Pace Argentina Di Pace - Rhor Consulting Rui Miguel Ferreira Finland VTT Techn. Research Centre of Finland Nuno Ferreira United Kingdom Arup Joost Gulikers Netherlands Rijkswaterstaat Centre for Infrastructure Fritz Hunkeler Switzerland TFB AG Akio Kasuga Japan Sumitomo Mitsui Construction Co., Ltd Lionel Linger France Vinci Construction Grand Projets Federica Lollini Italy Politecnico di Milano Koichi Maekawa Japan Yokohama National University Jonathan Mai-Nhu France CERIB Fabrizio Moro France LafargeHolcim Innovation Center Claus Nielsen Denmark DTI - Danish Technological Institute Maria Nilsson Sweden Luleå Universitetsbibliotek Mike Otieno South Africa Wits Frank Papworth Australia BCRC Michael Raupach Germany RWTH Aachen University Jean Michel Torrenti France Univ Gustave Eiffel François Toutlemonde France Université Gustave Eiffel Sylvia Kessler Germany Helmut-Schmidt-University/ University of the Federal Armed Forces Hamburg Qing-feng Liu China Shanghai Jiao Tong University Muhammad Imran Rafiq United Kingdom University of Brighton Tamon Ueda China Shenzhen University Yi Wang China Central South University
TG8.10 - Steel reinforcement
The key objective of this task group is to provide clear design procedures for the four durability verification methods in MC2010 for metallic reinforcements in concrete.
Extensive as MC2010 is on durability design, it does not give any guidance on specialty reinforcement noting only, “The following special types of steel that show enhanced corrosion protection properties can be used: galvanized steels, epoxy coated steels and stainless steels”. Use of reinforcement with a high resistance to corrosion has the potential to reduce the impost of reinforcement corrosion by orders of magnitude. With appropriate design procedures, specialty steel can significantly reduce cover requirements leading to increased sustainability. Therefore, it is important to develop clear approaches to durability deign using these materials for MC2020.
Pre-tensioned elements are typically specified to have higher covers and lower crack widths than low carbon steel. It is unclear if the higher covers fully account for the lower critical chloride level, different failure mechanisms and higher reliability requirements based on mode of failure. It is also unclear whether these higher protection requirements are universally required or if they can be relaxed based on the steel specification. This needs to be resolved for MC2020.
First name Last name Country Affiliation Ivica Zivanovic France Freyssinet Carmen Andrade Spain Centre Internacional de Mètodes Numèrics en l’Ènginyeria (CIMNE) David Fernández-Ordóñez Switzerland fib Frank Papworth Australia BCRC Warren Green Australia Vinsi Partners Peter Golding Australia Galvanizers Association of Australia Jan Vítek Czech Republic Metrostav a. s.
TG8.11 - Testing of new concrete
Durability design of concrete structures may incorporate a number of performance-based requirements depending on the deterioration mechanisms and exposure conditions to consider. While exposure definitions and performance-based requirements are dealt with in other fib TG’s, well documented test procedures for relevant materials properties are needed for support of the durability design and subsequent quality assurance. This includes well-founded probabilistic definitions for those properties.
The objective of Task Group 8.11 is to provide guidance on test methods and corresponding acceptance criteria and testing frequencies concerning quality assurance of concrete production. Furthermore, the objective is to link performance-requirements of concrete as yielded from durability design with the execution. For the latter, all stages of concrete production, i.e. pre-testing in the laboratory, trial testing in laboratory and on-site, and testing of running production are considered.
First name Last name Country Affiliation Sarah Schmiedel Germany Universität (Campus Süd) Institut für Massivbau und Baustofftechnologie Federica Lollini Italy Politecnico di Milano Michael Vogel Germany Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT) - Universität (Campus Süd) Anders Ole Stubbe Solgaard Denmark Cowi A/S Carmen Andrade Spain Centre Internacional de Mètodes Numèrics en l’Ènginyeria (CIMNE) David Fernández-Ordóñez Switzerland fib Frank Dehn Germany KIT Karlsruher Institut für Technologie Carola K. Edvardsen Denmark Cowi AS Lionel Linger France Vinci Construction Grand Projets Hans-Dieter Beushausen South Africa University of Cape Town Stefanie Von Greve-Dierfeld Switzerland TFB Technology and Research for Concrete Structures Amir Rahimi Germany Bundesanstalt für Wasserbau Doug Hooton Canada University of Toronto Alfred Strauss Austria Univ. Bodenkultur Vienna Roberto Torrent Switzerland Quali- Ti-Mat Sagl Fabrizio Moro France LafargeHolcim Innovation Center Ahmad Khartabil United Arab Emirates Transgulf Readymix Concrete Co. Peng Zhang China Qingdao University of Technology