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Structural Concrete, Vol. 7, no. 1, March 2006

Failure analysis of a thin-webbed girder of post-tensioned concrete

L. Bing, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, People's Republic of China
L. Guanglu, Tongji University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China
Z. Long, Tianjin Steel Wire and Steel Cable Group Co., Ltd, People's Republic of China

The failure of a thin-webbed girder of post-tensioned concrete was investigated. In a foggy environment containing hydrochloric acid, the girder ruptured in the midspan as a result of steel strand corrosion. The causes and mechanisms of the strand fracture were identified by careful observations of the fracture surface of the strands and corrosion on the surface of the strands. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of the fracture morphology of the strands, after mechanical fracture, showed that hydrogen in the environment had an effect on the strands. The investigation revealed that failure of the girder occurred because, while being attacked by the corrosive media, stress accelerated surface corrosion of the strands such that the cross-sections of the wires in the strands were severely weakened, consequently leading to the fracture of the strands. 

Structural Concrete, Vol. 7, no. 1, March 2006

FE modelling of bond interaction of FRP bars to concrete

Z. Achillides, National Technical University of Athens, Greece 
K. Pilakoutas, University of Sheffield, UK

In this paper a computational modelling approach is used to investigate the bond behaviour of fibre-reinforced plastic (FRP) bars in concrete. Two finite element packages (ANSYS and ABAQUS) are used to model the bond interaction of FRP reinforcing bars in cubes and beams. The main purpose of this work is to develop additional understanding of how FRP bars 'cooperate' with concrete to sustain the pullout load. Two modelling approaches are presented. In the first approach, a spring describing the behaviour of short embedment lengths in pullout tests was used for predicting the behaviour of longer embedment lengths. In the second approach, spring characteristics obtained from an experimentally determined bond stress against anchorage length envelope are used in FE modelling of beams. Both approaches showed good agreement between analytical and experimental results. However, further development on the analytical modelling of the bond interaction is required, in order to consider the effect of all parameters that influence bond. 

Structural Concrete, Vol. 7, no. 1, March 2006

Load-deflection behaviour of restrained RC slab strips

K. U. Muthu, M.S. Ramaiah Institute of Technology, Bangalor, India 
K. Amarnath, M.S. Ramaiah Institute of Technology, Bangalor, India 
A. Ibrahim, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Selangor, Malaysia 
H. Mattarneh, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Selangor, Malaysia 

This paper presents results of an experimental investigation into the load-deflection behaviour of restrained reinforced concrete slab strips subjected to uniformly distributed loads beyond the yield load. A method incorporating compressive membrane action is proposed to predict the behaviour. Results indicate that the proposed method can predict the actual trends for certain scenarios. Previously reported methods have been studied and the results compared with those from the current work. 

Structural Concrete, Vol. 6, no. 4, December 2005

On statistical characteristics of the compressive strength of recycled aggregate concrete

Jianzhuang Xiao, Tongi University, P.R. China
Jiabin Li, Tongi University, P.R. China
Chuanzeng Zhang, University of Siegen, Germany

This paper presents a statistical analysis of the compressive strength of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) with recycled coarse aggregate (RCA) coming from one single source. The statistical analysis includes the mean value, the standard deviation and the coefficient of variation in addition to the probabilistic distribution. In order to obtain the compressive strength variations, 371 cube specimens with different RCA replacement percentages of 0, 30%, 50% and 100%, respectively, were tested under identical laboratory conditions. With the statistical data, both the normal and the lognormal model were fitted to describe the probabilistic distribution of the compressive strength. It was found that the statistical characteristics of the compressive strength of recycled aggregate concrete do not differ very much from those of normal concrete (NC) with similar strength, irrespective of the recycled coarse aggregate replacement percentage.

Structural Concrete, Vol. 6, no. 4, December 2005

Discussion: The influence of the parameter φ/ρeff on crack widths (Structural Concrete, 2004, 5, No. 2, 71 - 83)

A.W. Beeby, University of Leeds, UK
C. Ålander, Ruukki Metals, Finland
J. Cairns, Heriot-Watt University, UK U. Mayer, University of Stuttgart, Germany
S. Lettow, University of Stuttgart, Germany
D. Ferretti, University of Parma, Italy
I. Iori, University of Parma, Italy
P. Gambarova, Milan University of Technology, Italy
P. Bamonte, Milan University of Technology, Italy
E. Giuriani, University of Brescia, Italy
G. Plizzari, University of Bergamo, Italy
S. Pantazopoulou, Demokritus University of Thrace, Greece
S. Tastani, Demokritus University of Thrace, Greece

Professor Beeby's 2004 paper questioned the basis of the widely cited "classical" model for estimation of crack widths in reinforced concrete elements. It provides a valuable reminder of the need to verify the predictions of theoretical models against experimental data, a task which he has performed to the benefit of our understanding on several occasions in the past. Professor Beeby will therefore not be surprised to learn that others have subjected his own ideas to similar scrutiny. In the several contributions below, members of fib Task Group 4.5 "Bond Models" raise questions over the validity of conclusions in the paper, based on a wider range of experimental data and more recent developments in theoretical modelling. (John Cairns, Convenor, fib Task Group 4.5 "Bond Models")

Structural Concrete, Vol. 6, no. 3, September 2005

Influence of the shear force and transverse reinforcement ratio on plastic rotation capacity

R. do Carmo, Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal
S. M. R. Lopes, Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal

Ductility, particularly the plastic rotation capacity of critical regions, conditions the available degree of moment redistribution and the ability to exploit the additional resistance of hyperstatic structures. A theoretical model for calculating plastic rotation capacity, considering the influence of the main factors, is presented. Special attention has been paid to the influence of the tensile reinforcement ratio, the shear force and the confinement of compressed concrete on plastic rotation capacity. Theoretical results are compared with those obtained using an experimental programme designed to study the influence of these factors. Some extrapolations are made on the basis of the model, and conclusions are drawn.

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