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Structural Concrete, Vol. 3, no. 2, June 2002

New trends in prestressed concrete bridges

M. Virlogeux, Consulting Engineer and Designer

This paper aims to give an overview of the recent evolution in the design and construction of prestressed concrete bridges worldwide. Several major trends are evidenced. Certainly those which have the larger influence for the industry due to their wide applications are the development of external prestressing, now systematically used in some countries for medium span bridges; the emergence of high performance concrete which extends the possibilities at the same time as improving the durability of concrete structures; and the more and more frequent association of steel and concrete to constitute composite bridges of different types and composite elements in bridges, allowing for many innovative structures. Considering more specific applications, a section is devoted to cable-stayed bridges which received very interesting development during the last ten years; and another section evokes the more and more extensive use of heavy prefabrication in large projects, with elements up to several thousand metric tons. The paper concludes with a word on bridge architecture, showing that good structural designs can produce elegant prestressed concrete bridges.

Structural Concrete, Vol. 3, no. 2, June 2002

FE analyses and tests of lap splices in frame corners

Karin Lundgren, Chalmers University of Technology, Goteborg, Sweden

Until recently, splicing of the reinforcement in frame corners had not been allowed by the Swedish Road Administration. Since this has led to reinforcement layouts that were hard to realise on site, the effect of splices placed in corner regions were examined. Four frame corners with differing detailing were tested. Furthermore, detailed three-dimensional non-linear finite element analyses of corners were conducted. The splitting stresses resulting from the anchorage were taken into account by the use of a new model of the bond mechanism. A parameter study of the importance of the loading conditions was made with two-dimensional models. The tests and analyses show that splicing the reinforcement in the middle of the corner has advantages over placing splices outside the bend of the reinforcement. They also indicate, in agreement with the previous analyses and tests, that provided the splice length is as long as required by the codes, there are no disadvantages in splicing the reinforcement within the corner of a frame.

Structural Concrete, Vol. 3, no. 2, June 2002

Friction between concrete and slipform panel during slipforming

Kjell T. Fosså, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway
Magne Maage, Selmer Skanska AS, Oslo, Norway

Tests are carried out in a vertical slipform rig in order to identify the main parameters affecting the lifting stress (friction) during lifting of the slipform panel. The results show that there is an almost linear correlation between the net lifting stress and the effective pressure. This means that the net lifting stress can be calculated based on the effective pressure by using the friction law. The lifting stress is affected by both the particle shape of the aggregates, roughness of the slipform panel and the workability in the early phase. The results also show that lower air content and a finer pore system (finer particle size distribution and higher particle concentration) in the concrete will result in a higher maximum lifting stress (friction). Also a lower lifting height or lower frequency will increase the lifting stress. It is assumed that higher lifting stress will increase the risk for surface damages during lifting of the slipform.

Structural Concrete, Vol. 3, no. 1, March 2002

"Inspectionability" of bridges

Jorge de Brito, Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal
Sonia Santos, BRISA, Portugal
Fernando A. Branco, Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal

Guidelines that relate to the design of concrete road and railway bridges are presented in this paper in order to guarantee the durability of bridges through easier inspection procedures -- the concept of inspectionability. The main characteristics that must be conferred on these structures, in order to facilitate access to all of their elements which are most prone to inspection/maintenance, are defined. In this context, access to the bridge elements and the equipment installed (bearings and joints) is paramount. The inspection auxiliary means are classified by traditional methods, by specific design detailing and by specific inspection equipment. Each of these groups is described and examples of their use are presented.

Structural Concrete, Vol. 3, no. 1, March 2002

Comparison of structural characteristics for different types of cable-supported prestressed concrete bridges

H. Otsuka, Graduate School of Civil Engineering, Kyushu University
T. Wakasa, New Structural Engineering Ltd
J. Ogata, Ingerosec Corporation
W. Yabuki, Graduate School of Civil Engineering, Kyushu University
D. Takemura, Graduate School of Civil Engineering, Kyushu University

Following recent developments in prestressed concrete bridges, this paper examines extradosed and cable-stayed structures, particularly with regard to the evaluation of seismic performance and the economical considerations in a seismic region, and provides designers with guidance for choosing the most appropriate structure.

Structural Concrete, Vol. 3, no. 1, March 2002

The added value and profit of concrete research and development

J. Moksnes, Honorary president fib, Norway
M. Maage, Selmer Skanska, Norway

This paper presents the costs and the associated added value and profit for a selection of concrete research and development (R&D) programmes in Norway during 1980-2000. The estimated figures give a ratio of added value, or return on investments, to costs equal to 19. This ratio is remarkably high and demonstrates that industry based R&D can be a profitable investment. The major beneficiaries of the added value are the clients of the industry and society, through reduced costs and better products and solutions.

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