Direct design of hollow reinforced concrete beams. Part II: experimental investigation
A. S. Alnauimi, Sultan Qaboos University, Sultanate of Oman
P. Bhatt, University of Glasgow, UK
Tests were conducted on eight reinforced concrete hollow beams subjected to combined load of bending, shear and torsion. The beams were designed using the direct design method that was discussed in Part I. All beams had an overall cross-section dimension of 300 300 mm with a wall thickness of 50 mm. The overall length of the beam was 3800 mm. The two main variables in the series were the ratio in the web of the maximum elastic shear stress due to twisting moment to elastic shear stress due to shear force which varied between 0.59 and 6.84, and the ratio of the maximum twisting moment to the bending moment which varied between 0.19 and 2.62. The beams were experimentally tested in the University of Glasgow, Scotland, UK. Good agreement was found between the design and experimental failure loads. All beams failed near the design loads and had undergone ductile behaviour until failure. The results indicate that the direct design method can be successfully used to design reinforced concrete box beams for the combined effect of bending, shear and torsion loads.
Spatial variability of concrete deterioration and repair strategies
Y. Li, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands
T. Vrouwenvelder, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands
G. H. Wijnants, Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, Delft, The Netherlands
J. Walraven, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands
This paper presents an improved and more realistic approach to evaluate the deterioration process and optimise the repair strategy of concrete structures. It is based on the commonly used probabilistic-based reliability analysis methods, but takes into account the spatial variability of concrete properties that has great impact on the design and maintenance decisions of structures. The developed approach is exemplified by the concrete bridge 'Wilpsedijk' in the Netherlands to show the service lifetime prediction based on spatial variability of concrete deterioration including initiation and propagation period. With respect to an established repair criterion, available repair options and the corresponding repair costs, the optimal lifetime repair strategy is determined. In comparison with most of the studies that neglect the variables with random spatial variability, the approach reflects the actual situation more realistically and can produce useful information as the proportion or percentage of the surface area that shows concrete deterioration during the whole period of time. It enables the planning of different repair and maintenance strategies for the structure from a practical point of view.